What is overpopulation? reasons, effects and solution

What is overpopulation? reasons, effects and solution

Overpopulation is a serious problem the world needs to deal with. It refers to a population which exceeds its sustainable size  inside a specific environment. Because overpopulation is a serious problem the world needs to deal with. Furthermore overpopulation is caused by numbers of factors. However increased birth rate, decreased death rate, the immigration, better medical facilities, use of precious resources are few.

Developing advances in innovation with each coming year has effected humankind. And one of these has been the capacity to save lives. And make better medicinal treatment for all. However an immediate after effect of this has been expanded lifetime and increasing population. Therefore, overpopulation describes a situation in which a population in a given ecosystem limit the resources available for survival.

Reasons for overpopulation

overpopulation - lack of family planning
Overpopulation – lack of family planning

When we are discussing overpopulation, we should initially comprehend the reasons for it. Which are given below:

1- Lack of family planning

Most developing countries having large number of individuals who are unskilled. And they have almost no information about family planning. Getting their children wedding at an early age  increases the chances of producing more kids. Because those people are unable to understand the harmful effects of overpopulation.

2- Technological advancement in fertility treatment

Due to modern techniques pregnancies today are far more safer. With latest technology,  it has become possible for couples who are unable to conceive. So, they go through fertility treatment methods and have their own babies.

3- Decline in the death rate

The invention of vaccines and antibiotics such as penicillin saved thousands of lives. If the number of children born each year equals the number of adults that die. Then the population will be stable. As the number of annual deaths fell, while births remained constant so the population increased.

4- More hands to overcome poverty

overpopulation - less jobs

There is a psychological component as well. For a great many years, a little piece of the population had enough money to live in peace. But the rest faced poverty. And would give birth to large families to make up for the high infant death rate. Furthermore families that have been through poverty needs more hands to work.

5- Better Medical Facilities

Technology was the biggest reason why the balance has been disturbed. Many diseases are cured because of the invention of vaccines. As the number of annual deaths fell, while births remained constant. So the population increased.

6- Immigration

overpopulation - immigration

Many people prefer to move to developed countries. Where more facilities are available in terms of medical, education, security and employment like US, UK, Canada and Australia. And this gives rise to shortage of resources.  So, the end result is that those people settle over there. But those places become overcrowded.

7- Introduction of a foreign species

The introduction of a foreign species for which it has no natural predators. Often, such species become invasive like zebra mussels and the introduction of rabbits in Australia.

Effects of overpopulation

Overpopulation can have many effects on the environment.

1- Rising unemployment

Rise in unemployment gives rise to crime as people will steal various items to feed their family. Because overpopulation gives rise to unemployment and as there are fewer jobs to support large number of people. But high number of workers exist for a limited number of vacancies.

2- Degradation of environment

overpopulation - degradation of environment

Rising  amount of CO2 release leads to global warming. Growth in energy production from coal, oil and natural gas (fossil fuels) is having a negative impact on the planet.  Rise in the number of vehicles and industries have badly affected the quality of air. Because of Deforestation and melting of polar ice caps, extinction of animal and plant species, rise in sea level and emissions of greenhouse gases. So, changing climate patterns are few effects we are facing due to environmental pollution.

3- Rising living costs

Due to overpopulation, difference between demand and supply continues to expand. Resources such as water, food, shelter and healthcare become fewer. Hence overpopulation raises the prices of various commodities.

4- Conflicts and wars

what is overpopulation - conflicts and wars

The main effect of overpopulation is the unequal use of resources. Conflicts over water are becoming a source of tension between countries. The planet has a limited capacity to generate raw materials. Whereas the use of resources at a faster rate than the planet is able to generate them is causing issues.  The Earth can only produce a limited amount of water and food. Starvation is a huge issue facing the world.

Solution for overpopulation

solution for overpopulation
Solution for overpopulation

We can no longer prevent it, but there are ways to control overpopulation. Indeed issues with overpopulation have been overcome using a variety of methods.

  • Making People aware of Family Planning.
  • One of the best way is to let them know about various safe sex techniques.
  • Families that are facing a hard life and choose to have four or five children should be discouraged.
  • Lowering rates of income tax for those married couples who have single or two children.
  • Open dialogue on abortion should be seen when talking about overpopulation.
  • Give them better Education.
  • Family planning and efficient birth control can help.
  • Giving sex education to young kids at elementary level should be must.
  • As we humans are more inclined towards money, there should be Tax Benefits or Concessions.


Human population growth from 1800 to 2000
Human population growth from 1800 to 2000

In the past fifty years, the development of population has blasted and transformed into overpopulation. Ever of species, the birth and death rate have always been the option to adjust each and keep up a population development rate. However overpopulation is one of the biggest challenges humanity is facing. It threatens the near future of the planet in economic, environmental and social terms. Furthermore by making people aware of family planning, we can  control overpopulation.

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